Monday 15 January 2018


Welcome to this Post and the New Year 2018.  
A must for true history.21 mins
Although I am doing a lot on UFO  again the Native people knew and had cntact with our space family and some I still have contact with still have contact.

More UFO ---VERY GOOD----I met Robert Dean in Brussels on several occasions.
10 mins
Yes its 2 hrs long ---well worth looking at.
59:20 Bob states: We were invited to the moon....Russian Scientist Dr. Vladimir Ahazha, stated: Alien helpers were also on hand during the moon landing of Apollo 11. Soviet intelligence was monitoring the event and heard Neil Amstrong report that two large UFO's were observing the module as it landed. Dr. Sergei Bozhich, who witnessed the Soviet monitoring stated: in his opinion the two UFO's appeared ready to assist the U.S. Astronaunts in case anything should go wrong. -The Source. Interesting correlation.
Massive UFO over France, China and Australia  12 mins
I realise I put a lot into UFO / ET and in my earlier writings in energygrid(a shame it closed down, it was a huge success and a very large following and the editor is a close friend an a person of great honesty and integrity) I wrote of many people I met and encounters and the last one I fully revealed caused a lot of back lash and I lost a lot of credibility these I refer to in Post 204 and 309 actually the full story of Olly/ Ollie and Alice with Lord X is in 309 and I was hesitant in Post 204. 
I know a lot of folk in the UFO world or the big names in it do not know me or even aware of me however I have genuine contacts with many(howls of derision---the same excuse cannot reveal your source or prove and you justify it with saying 'well they are whistle blowers and can be threatened or lose their jobs and the like-- Geoff try another excuse you are just a loser).
Courtesy Board of
I met Robert Dean in 1967 in Brussels through two UFO investigators I met in at Samye Ling Post 9 and other fascinating contacts related to ET and Samye Ling Post 222 and when you read my CV in the site you will see I lectured and presented workshops in Brussels at the EU for eight years at various weekends and weeks as I did in the FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization in Rome) one a year for eight years for eight years both in the late 70's and 80's where I met some cardinals who also shared ET details with me. 
Why am I blowing my own trumpet? For years in fact from 1967 till now I am convinced we are in the next step of evolution and from my UFO story
I am convinced that our space cousins are a most, most important factor in this, for from what Bob Dean is saying above and I have mentioned the DNA and Sun /climate information we are to become Homo Energetica / Spiritulana the next step in the Human Bio spectrum and wear a body as akin to our space family, and become part of the family through a series of updates, configurations increments and DNA  sequences, this has been done as mentioned in back Posts from 320 onwards. 
Our bodies will become like those in Post 332 and also mention of Ben Rich and details and another upgrade videos by a young genius who verifies my Sun and DNA information.
Courtesy i09
The Earth is a living being and the joined tectonic plates give one the feeling of a growing being, the Universe is alive and intelligent. Everything is in motion and even seemingly solid things are at the molecular, atomic and particle level moving exchanging information through the process of independent interrelationships, a mutual hanger of growth and evolution and mostly in symbiosis. 
Because I feel so strongly that these changes are not only imminent but we are feeling the processes of it now----however the Big POINT is do we do it as cyborgs as mentioned in POSTS 135 A SPECIAL NO.1, POST 136 A SPECIAL NO.1 POST 137 and POST 139 or do we go The Universal Evolutionary Organic DNA process. With Cybernetic process human beings will determine who lives or dies or is put into a hardrive, be slaves in Domes and those elites will lose their powers of domination over the population and so wish to keep evolution 'hid' from many.  I know the above and Bob Dean and I have shared to many may seem pie in the sky.  It is a leap of faith or trust, but by meditation and close intense listening in silence and weighing it up it may silently dawn on you.
Courtesy  Softonic
Then we see the testimonies of Timothy Good that at large conference in Prague with many prominent scientists and presenters a stranger at the end spoke and when Timothy shook hands with him the hands were cold and strange staring eyes and no one could remember what he said or most of the meeting, Timothy's own amazing encounters with many witnesses, Sir Paul Hellyer's witnessing, Kennedy files and UFO implications and of course the strange goings on with Admiral Byrd at the Antarctic, please use search bar at top left for this.
Then is my UFO encounters at Findhorn and the RAF to witness this and so on. The Encounter with the Samye Ling Monks in a twelve seater vehicle on our way back from Langholm to Samye Ling in Eskdalemuir where we saw five beautiful UFO this was in 1968 and the Monks told us to bow our heads and not to stare at them they were out holy space brothers.
Domes can be found on Post 330 and more on Post 175 and the BBC extinction article in POST 324.
Courtesy Pinterest
Courtesy   Pinterest
Then there are the testimonies of Catholic Months who live atop of the mountains in Peru and Bolivia in Monasteries dedicated to extreme discipline devotion that have sworn statements on oath that space travellers have regularly joined them and dined with them and are interested in their religion and so on. Then in image above see the ancient texts on Vimana which look like the space shuttle and so on.
There is so much more and I apologise if I sound egoistic and dominant in my aspirations, however it is my wish for you dear reader that should I be correct in my research and assumptions that you benefit from a fine upgraded intelligent loving mind and beautiful flesh body and not fall foul of being half robot half whatever. Thank you.
My sincere thanks Robert Dean for being so forthright and having the courage to do so, he has given people like me the chance to state what I have been saying since 1967 and knew in 1942 from my NDE  experience.

This is similar to back Post 300 onwards about the 42 and 5 big Earth events. 4 mins
Is similar in some ways to the Earth cycles and exstinctions.
James Corbett --great as usual.   14 mins
The Aliens are coming, Trump stolen emails and of course Luke. 12 mins
I feel Daniel is very honest and has integrity and investigates his sources and is very shrewd with his summary's and and intelligent questions.. 100 mins
This again touches on the 'Earth Changes and possibly seen as disasters while I feel although we contrubute to it it is part of evolution and the 42 / 5 cycle. 6 mins.
THIS IS VITAL ----FOLLOW THE POSTS FROM 300 ONWARDS AND YOU WILL SEE WHAT MAIN STREAM SCIENCE IS SAYING; especially the graphs of and the effect of  Human  Biology.
David Sibeck is mentioned in the video above and in this blog from 2009 you will see more of the changes and DNA which I put to you, not to be taken as Dr Sibeck's view.  THIS IS A STAND ALONE BLOG PLEASE READ IT, IT DEFINITELY OUTLINES MY 1967 WRITINGS AND NEXT STEP OF EVOLUTION.
JUST TO CONFIRM ;  and a big thank you for their work below(In no way do I have connection with them and my ideas are not theirs and I gratefully use their charts to support my work and not to be confused in any way with them.  Please read the # 1,2,3 in their work below.)
Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere

Readers, thank you for your patience while we continue to develop this new section of We've been working to streamline our data reduction, allowing us to post results from balloon flights much more rapidly, and we have developed a new data product, shown here:
This plot displays radiation measurements not only in the stratosphere, but also at aviation altitudes. Dose rates are expessed as multiples of sea level. For instance, we see that boarding a plane that flies at 25,000 feet exposes passengers to dose rates ~10x higher than sea level. At 40,000 feet, the multiplier is closer to 50x. These measurements are made by our usual cosmic ray payload as it passes through aviation altitudes en route to the stratosphere over California.
What is this all about? Approximately once a week, and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus fly space weather balloons to the stratosphere over California. These balloons are equipped with radiation sensors that detect cosmic rays, a surprisingly "down to Earth" form of space weather. Cosmic rays can seed cloudstrigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. Furthermore, there are studies ( #1#2#3#4) linking cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in the general population. Our latest measurements show that cosmic rays are intensifying, with an increase of more than 13% since 2015:
Why are cosmic rays intensifying? The main reason is the sun. Solar storm clouds such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) sweep aside cosmic rays when they pass by Earth. During Solar Maximum, CMEs are abundant and cosmic rays are held at bay. Now, however, the solar cycle is swinging toward Solar Minimum, allowing cosmic rays to return. Another reason could be the weakening of Earth's magnetic field, which helps protect us from deep-space radiation.
The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.
The data points in the graph above correspond to the peak of the Reneger-Pfotzer maximum, which lies about 67,000 feet above central California. When cosmic rays crash into Earth's atmosphere, they produce a spray of secondary particles that is most intense at the entrance to the stratosphere. Physicists Eric Reneger and Georg Pfotzer discovered the maximum using balloons in the 1930s and it is what we are measuring today.

In the link above see the climate changes in the solar system.

Dr Leonard Caldwell  7 mins

Body P/H  7 mins  Dr Robert D Young
Physics --warp drive and the singularity. 14 mins
At  last someone supporting my theories if 'singularity' and if you followed my Stargate Project it is based on that.

Thanks for reading 



Chemtrails again.  18 mins
Really revealing  1hr.13 mins

Five more SHACKS

Monday 1 January 2018


Hello and have a great healthy and stress free New Year and to assist with stress try what they are now naming 'mindfulness' it is like meditation and the differences are mainly choice and when and where you first were taught it or by yourself from literature or video about it.  As a personal note I feel imagery, music, affirmations, prayer, chants, mantra, yantra, hypnosis, visualizations and similar aspects are definitely helpful and may lead up to meditation.
THE SUN IS DIMMING: Yesterday at Cape Canaveral, SpaceX launched a new sensor to the International Space Station named TSIS-1. Its mission: to measure the dimming of the sun. As the sunspot cycle plunges toward its 11-year minimum, NASA satellites are tracking a decline in total solar irradiance (TSI). Across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, the sun's output has dropped nearly 0.1% compared to the Solar Maximum of 2012-2014. This plot shows the TSI since 1978 as observed from nine previous satellites:

Click here for a complete explanation of this plot.
The rise and fall of the sun's luminosity is a natural part of the solar cycle. A change of 0.1% may not sound like much, but the sun deposits a lot of energy on the Earth, approximately 1,361 watts per square meter. Summed over the globe, a 0.1% variation in this quantity exceeds all of our planet's other energy sources (such as natural radioactivity in Earth's core) combined. A 2013 report issued by the National Research Council (NRC), "The Effects of Solar Variability on Earth's Climate," spells out some of the ways the cyclic change in TSI can affect the chemistry of Earth's upper atmosphere and possibly alter regional weather patterns, especially in the Pacific.
NASA's current flagship satellite for measuring TSI, the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), is now more than six years beyond its prime-mission lifetime. TSIS-1 will take over for SORCE, extending the record of TSI measurements with unprecedented precision. It's five-year mission will overlap a deep Solar Minimum expected in 2019-2020. TSIS-1 will therefore be able to observe the continued decline in the sun's luminosity followed by a rebound as the next solar cycle picks up steam. Installing and checking out TSIS-1 will take some time; the first science data are expected in Feb. 2018. Stay tuned. (Courtesy

By now you will have become familiar with my take on these climatic  and solar events and if not a synopsis from Post 300 onwards will be useful.
Karen Nyberg Astronaut .  Washing her hair in space.
Running in the ISS
Scott Kelly  Eating in the ISS. What a performance.  Scott spent nearly a year on the ISS.

There is information from NASA based on Scott Kelly and the comparisons between his identical twin brother who stayed on Earth if you can find it, Scott has written a book and not a lot of detail comes from it, similar to Chris Hadfield's book, enough to whet the appetite. NASA is working hard to find solutions to many issues in order to combat danger in the intended Mars Mission, although why they do not just admit what Ben Rich and Don Phillips in the last Post stated and all this money could be used to benefit so many real needs.(more info on challenges in space in Addendum at end)
Gigantic Jet Lighting ---a space atmosphere phenomena. 3 mins 

All-inclusive Northern Lights trips in Tromsø, Norway. Small groups, big experiences! Highly qualified guides ensure unique and unforgettable adventures with a personal touch. Visit Explore the Arctic
SOLAR SECTOR BOUNDARY CROSSING: On Dec. 22nd or 23rd, Earth will cross a fold in the heliospheric current sheet--a vast wavy structure in interplanetary space separating regions of opposite magnetic polarity. This is called a "solar sector boundary crossing," and it could trigger geomagnetic activity around Earth's poles. Arctic sky watchers should be alert for auroras when the crossing occurs. Free: Aurora alerts.
GIGANTIC JETS: Back in the 1980s, researchers were amazed when they discovered sprites--luminous red forms dancing on top of intense electrical storms, reaching their strangely-shaped tentacles up to the edge of space. Since then, sprites have been photographed by astronomers around the world. Now a new form of upper atmospheric lightning is being seen: the Gigantic Jet. "They are related to sprites, but more powerful and easier to see with the naked eye," says Frankie Lucena of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico, who has photographed almost 2 dozen this year so far:
"Gigantic Jets are more rare than sprites," notes Oscar van der Velde, a member of the Lightning Research Group at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. "While sprites were discovered in 1989 and have since been photographed by the thousands, it was not until 2001-2002 that Gigantic Jets were first recorded from Puerto Rico and Taiwan."
Before 2017, Gigantic Jet sightings numbered in the dozens. Lucena alone has added approximately 20 to that total in a single year. "These jets came from 4 different storms," says Lucena. "They were all tropical waves except for tropical storm Harvey, which was by far the most prolific producer of the jets."
The most recent event in Lucena's collection was on Sept 30, 2017--"just 10 days after Hurricane Maria devastated my island," he points out. The capture is a testament to Lucena's dedication and observing skill. He powered his cameras using a gasoline generator and a backup battery because the island's electrical grid was almost completely disabled. "I wish I had solar power at my house because the lines for gasoline were very long and money spent on it really hurt the pocket. We went 82 days without power," he adds.
Gigantic Jets and their cousins the sprites inhabit the upper atmosphere alongside auroras, meteors and noctilucent clouds. Some researchers believe they are linked to cosmic rays: subatomic particles from deep space striking the top of Earth's atmosphere produce secondary electrons that could, in turn, provide the spark for these upward bolts. Courtesy
8 mins about chemtrails---it is sensitive because  German Aerospace lost his job over exposing them and is barred from getting work in any aerospace industry. 
Sami Peoples and the changes to their lives----like the Sun at top of blog-----changing times. 12 mins.
Although I am all for change in many things I do not feel that building and mining for ores, gas extraction, especially fracking is helpful to the Sami and other ethnic races as we could employ natural means of which there are some 91 inventions, however this would be free energy and without much profit once the the means of extracting that would have been built. 
Amazing. 4 mins
This is a question and answer session in Ireland with a link to Daniel of Dark Journalist.
The filming is poor but some other questions and answers are very revealing. 
It was very pleasant to have a sort of natural meeting, a bit amateurish in its presentation and informal, just to my taste anyway. The mixture of presenters was great.  Great to see Kerry and Daniel very big presenters and well known being humble and attentive.
Taxi of the future----controlled by the 4. 5G network, it has arrived. 5 mins.
More passenger drones 11 mins
Is this the future? Well they would have to have a means of air traffic control with all the vehicles using space-----perhaps laser airways, like lanes of light equivalent to roads?  It's all about getting to work, meetings and the like, fast, perhaps stay at home or central libraries where work could be done by more efficient Skype type conferences thereby clean air, less noise and more leisure time for reading, exercise, social gatherings to play music with neighbours, acting and drama and creativity, ways of sharing and caring. 
Quantum sensors and humans can have them as well. 2 mins
As predators go, sharks have got to be up there with the most impressive. Not only do they have size, speed, and blockbuster movie credentials, but they are also born with a fascinating sixth sense.
Instead of using their vision or sense of smell to track down all of their prey, sharks are able to use electro-sensory organs to ‘listen’ for bioelectric traces in the water around them. 

And now, in a new study, humans have created a way that we can do this too.

Now a new study has developed a ‘quantum material’ that can exactly mimic this ability with a similar field of sensitivity to that reported in sharks.
The new sensor is made of a material called samarium nickelate, a quantum material which conducts protons very fast - leading the researchers to wonder if it could be useful for developing a copycat sensor.  
An initial prototype was then tested in simulated ocean water environments designed to cover the wide ranges of temperature and pH found across earth’s oceans. And it worked.
Not only did it function in low temperatures, but the saltwater did not corrode it even after extended periods of testing.
The team hopes that the technology could be applied in various disciplines from marine biology - to study ocean organisms and ecosystems - to defence, helping to monitor ships for military and commercial purposes.
In future work, researchers plan to test the devices in real oceans instead and may team with biologists to apply the technology to broader studies.

Many years back in the 80's when I used to lecture in Rome at the FAO UN for a month stay and regularly for eight years I made contact with several Cardinals who shared many secrets with me and I have catalogued these in the late energygrid and some in this site.  You may find more in the search bars. ( More through Black Space Below) (also lectures as in Rome to the EU in Brussels for many a long weekend throughout a eight  year period---met many NATO people who shared many things---especially UFO)

 Funded UFO Program
The mystery into whether or not we’re alone in the universe has been a constant question for over 6 decades and it looks like the Defense Department wanted some answers. For

more on the story here is Zachary Devita.

Once again A great New Year


Be Well




            The Human Body in Space

What happens to your body in space?  NASA’s Human Research Program has been unfolding answers for over a decade.  Space is a dangerous, unfriendly place.  Isolated from family and friends, exposed to radiation that could increase your lifetime risk for cancer, a diet high in freeze-dried food, required daily exercise to keep your muscles and bones from deteriorating, a carefully scripted high-tempo work schedule, and confinement with three co-workers picked to travel with you by your boss.
Areas of Research tile image
How Space Affects the Human Body
But what, exactly, happens to your body in space, and what are the risks?  Are risks the same for six months on the space station versus three years on a Mars mission?  No.  There are several risks NASA is researching for a Mars mission.  The risks are grouped into five categories related to the stresses they place on the space traveler:  Gravity fields, isolation/confinement, hostile/closed environments, space radiation, and distance from Earth.          
Scott Kelly was the first American to spend nearly one year in spaceaboard the International Space Station, twice the normal time. Science takes time, and researchers are eagerly analyzing results of the mission to see how much more the body changes after a year in space.  One year is a stepping stone to a three-year journey to Mars, and Scott’s data will help researchers determine whether the solutions they’ve been developing will be suitable for such long, onerous journeys.
Beware, what you’re about to read can be scary.  But the good news is NASA has been working to solve these problems with some of the most brilliant minds in the field.  Rest assured, when we take the next giant leap to Mars, we will be ready.

1. Gravity Fields
Gravity Fields. There are three gravity fields you would experience on a Mars mission.  On the six-month trek between the planets, you would be weightless. On the surface of Mars, you would live and work in approximately one-third of Earth’s gravity, and when you return home you will have to readapt to the gravity we take for granted.  Transitioning from one gravity field to another is trickier than it sounds.  It affects your spatial orientation, head-eye and hand-eye coordination, balance, locomotion, and you’re likely to experience motion sickness.  If you have to land a spacecraft on Mars, it could be a pretty dangerous situation.  NASA has learned that without gravity working on your body, your bones lose minerals, with density dropping at over 1% per month.  By comparison, the rate of bone loss for elderly men and women on Earth is from 1% to 1.5% per year.  Even after returning to Earth, your bone loss might not be corrected by rehabilitation, so you could be at greater risk of osteoporosis-related fractures later in life.  If you don’t exercise and eat properly, you will lose muscle strength, endurance, and experience cardiovascular deconditioning since it does not take effort to float through space.  The fluids in your body will shift upwards to your head, which could put pressure on your eyes causing vision problems.  You’re apt to develop kidney stones due to dehydration and increased excretion of calcium from your bones.  Medications react differently in your body in space.  Nutrition, including eating enough, becomes important, otherwise you could compromise your health since nutrients are required for the function of every cell and system in your body.
Gravity Icon
The Key:  By analyzing how your body changes in weightlessness and after returning to Earth’s gravity, protection against these changes for a Mars mission can be developed.  Functional task testingis in place to help detect and minimize the effects of space on your balance and performance.  Fine motor skills testing is done to detect any changes in your ability to interact with your computer-based devices. Distribution of the fluids in your body will be closely monitored, to help evaluate any connection to changes in your vision.  Compression cuffs worn on your thighs will help keep the blood in your lower extremities to counteract those vision changes.  Your back pain would be monitored by obtaining spinal ultrasounds.  You will perform periodic fitness self-evaluations that help researchers better understand the decline in cardiovascular function that can occur during spaceflight. Some medicines, like potassium citrate (K-Cit), may help you combat the physiological change that could increase the risk for developing kidney stones.  Bisphosphonates drugs have shown to be effective in preventing bone loss.  NASA has also designed an efficient way to collect and measure how much urine you produce in space, which is essential to human research since it reveals key information about your health.  You will get proper nutrition, including vitamin D supplements since you can’t walk outside under the sun.  And last, good old regular exercise has been shown to keep your heart healthy, your bones and muscles strong, your mind alert, your outlook more positive, and may even help with your balance and coordination.  

2. Isolation/Confinement
Isolation/Confinement. NASA has learned that behavioral issues among groups of people crammed in a small space over a long time, no matter how well trained they are, are inevitable.  Expedition crews selected for a stay aboard the space station are carefully chosen, trained, and supported to make sure they can work effectively as a team for six months.  Crews for a Mars mission will undergo even more scrutiny and preparation, since they will travel farther and longer than any previous human, being more isolated and confined than we can imagine.  The types of problems you may encounter are a decline in mood, cognition, morale, or interpersonal interaction. You could also develop a sleep disorder because your circadian rhythm might be thrown off due to the 38 extra minutes each day on Mars, or by a small, noisy environment, or the stress of prolonged isolation and confinement. Depression could occur.  Fatigue is inevitable given that there will be times with heavy workload and shifting schedules.  Still, periods of monotony may lead to boredom rearing its ugly head.  Misunderstandings and impaired communications with your team members might impact performance and mission success. A lack of fresh food and mean variety, or deficiency in nutrition, may further contribute to physiological and cognitive decrements.  Also, far more autonomy will be required due to the very long communication delays over the vast distances from the space vehicle to Earth. And then there’s the possibility of the third-quarter effect, where morale and motivation decline three-quarters of the way into a mission, regardless of how long the mission lasts.  The more confined and isolated humans are, the more likely they are to develop behavioral or cognitive conditions, and psychiatric disorders.
Isolation Small
The Key:  NASA has been studying people in isolated and confined environments for years, and has developed methods and technologies to counteract possible problems.  They are using clever devices like actigraphy that help you to assess and improve your sleep and alertness by recording how much you move and how much ambient light is around you.  New lighting, spurred by the development of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) technology, will soon be used on the space station to help you align your circadian rhythms which will improve sleep, alertness, and performance.  You can assess the effect of fatigue on your performance with a five-minute self-testJournals give you a safe place to vent your frustrations and give researchers a tool to study behavioral issues and other things that are on the minds of crewmembers who are living and working in isolation and confinement. All of these methods and technologies will help us prepare for longer, farther exploration missions.

3. Hostile/Closed Environments
Hostile/Closed Environments.  NASA has learned that the ecosystem inside the spacecraft plays a big role in everyday astronaut life.  Microbes can change characteristics in space, and microorganisms that naturally live on your body are transferred more easily from person to person in closed habitats like the space station.  Your stress hormone levels are elevated and your immune system is altered, which could lead to increased susceptibility to allergies or other illnesses, and disease.  Every inch and detail of your living and working quarters must be carefully thought-out and designed.  Just like you wouldn’t want your house to be too hot, too cold, cramped and crowded, very loud, or not well lit, you wouldn’t enjoy working and living in such a dwelling in space either.
Hostile Icon
The Key:  NASA is using technology to monitor the air quality of the space station to ensure the atmosphere is safe to breathe and not contaminated with gases like formaldehyde, ammonia, and carbon monoxide.  Your urine and blood samples are analyzed to ensure the stress of space flight hasn’t caused infectious illnesses like the Epstein-Barr virus to be reactivated.  And the risk of microbes that may cause disease to you and your crewmembers will be evaluated using advanced molecular techniques.  Various parts of your body and the space station are swabbed for analysis of the microbial population that inhabits the environment.  Effective monitoring techniques are in place to identify how your immunesystem changes in space by analyzing blood, saliva, and urine samples.  Your living quarters and work environment are carefully planned and evaluated to ensure that designs balance comfort and efficiency.  And the lighting will be similar to what you experience naturally on Earth, thanks to the new LED lighting system.  

Space Radiation. The most dangerous aspect of traveling to Mars is space radiation.  On the space station, astronauts receive over ten times the radiation than what’s naturally occurring on Earth.  Our planet’s magnetic field and atmosphere protect us from harsh cosmic radiation, but without that, you are more exposed to the treacherous radiation.  Above Earth’s protective shielding, radiation exposure may increase your cancer risk.  It can damage your central nervous system, with both acute effects and later consequences, manifesting itself as altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes.  Space radiation can also cause radiation sickness that results in nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and fatigue.  You could develop degenerative tissue diseases such as cataracts, cardiac, and circulatory diseases.  The food you eat and the medicine you take must be safe and retain their nutrient and pharmaceutical value, even while being bombarded with space radiation.  A vehicle traveling to Mars and a habitat on Mars will need significant protective shielding, which is nonetheless futile against some types of space radiation.
Radiation Icon
The Key:  The space station sits just within Earth’s protective magnetic field, so while our astronauts are exposed to ten times higher the radiation than on Earth, it’s still much less than the radiation a mission to Mars will encounter, and of a different type.  Shielding, monitoring, and operational procedures control the radiation risks to acceptable levels to keep you safe.  To learn what happens above low Earth orbit, NASA has extensively used ground research facilities to study how radiation affects biological systems, and more importantly, how to protect them.  They are developing unique ways to monitor and measure how radiation affects you while living in space, and to identify biological countermeasures. Finally, methods to optimize shielding are being studied to help protect us on a journey to Mars. 

5. Distance from Earth
Distance from Earth.  Planning and self-sufficiency are key.  How far away is Mars?  140 million miles from Earth on average.  In contrast the moon is only 0.239 million miles away.  With a communication delay of up to twenty minutes one-way while on Mars and the possibility of equipment failures, you must be able to complete the mission on your own.  And what type of food and medicine would you pack if you had to go on a three-year trip without access to a grocery store or pharmacy?  Hopefully you plan correctly.
Distance Icon
The Key:  NASA is using the space station to figure out what types of medical events happen in space over six months and what types of skills, procedures, equipment, and medication are needed, so you will have a good idea of what you’ll need to pack for Mars.  You can produce Intravenous (IV) solution from purified space station cabin water, and then mix it with salt crystals to produce normal saline for medical administration.  Even if you aren’t a doctor, you and your crew mates would perform ultrasound scans on yourself using training you received before flight to monitor your bone and organ health.  NASA is studying and improving food formulation, processing, packaging, and preservation systems to ensure the nutrients remain stable and the food remains acceptable.  Space-resilient medications and packaging that preserve the integrity of pharmaceuticals for long duration missions have also been developed.  

NASA is taking action on all of these risks and trying to minimize or mitigate the negative effects on the human body.  The results of the one-year mission will provide more insight into these changes over a longer period of time, and present a stepping stone for even longer missions.  When we send humans on a journey to Mars, we will make sure that we have conquered the unknowns to ensure a safe trip home back to the gravity we know and love.
Laurie J. Abadie
Charles W. Lloyd
Mark J. Shelhamer
NASA Human Research Program
National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationPage Last Updated: Dec. 20, 2017Page Editor: Timothy GushanasNASA Official: Brian Dunbar
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