Thursday 18 May 2017


Dear Readers I apologise for all the information and some of it technical and some you have seen before. This is Courtesy of By now you will have my own interpretation of these radiations and frequencies this is just as it comes without my own views accept to say; this is not good for our planet or us, and note the fact about chemical effects.
There will also be four shackisback, (some
Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere

Readers, thank you for your patience while we continue to develop this new section of We've been working to streamline our data reduction, allowing us to post results from balloon flights much more rapidly, and we have developed a new data product, shown here:
This plot displays radiation measurements not only in the stratosphere, but also at aviation altitudes. Dose rates are expessed as multiples of sea level. For instance, we see that boarding a plane that flies at 25,000 feet exposes passengers to dose rates ~10x higher than sea level. At 40,000 feet, the multiplier is closer to 50x. These measurements are made by our usual cosmic ray payload as it passes through aviation altitudes en route to the stratosphere over California.
What is this all about? Approximately once a week, and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus fly space weather balloons to the stratosphere over California. These balloons are equipped with radiation sensors that detect cosmic rays, a surprisingly "down to Earth" form of space weather. Cosmic rays can seed cloudstrigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. Furthermore, there are studies ( #1#2#3#4) linking cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in the general population. Our latest measurements show that cosmic rays are intensifying, with an increase of more than 13% since 2015:
Why are cosmic rays intensifying? The main reason is the sun. Solar storm clouds such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) sweep aside cosmic rays when they pass by Earth. During Solar Maximum, CMEs are abundant and cosmic rays are held at bay. Now, however, the solar cycle is swinging toward Solar Minimum, allowing cosmic rays to return. Another reason could be the weakening of Earth's magnetic field, which helps protect us from deep-space radiation.
The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.
The data points in the graph above correspond to the peak of the Reneger-Pfotzer maximum, which lies about 67,000 feet above central California. When cosmic rays crash into Earth's atmosphere, they produce a spray of secondary particles that is most intense at the entrance to the stratosphere. Physicists Eric Reneger and Georg Pfotzer discovered the maximum using balloons in the 1930and it is what we are measuring today

ANTHROPOGENIC SPACE WEATHER: Space weather can have a big effect on human society. Sometimes human society returns the favor. A new study entitled "Anthropogenic Space Weather" just published in Space Science Reviews outlines how human activity shapes the space around our planet. A prime example: Human radio transmissions form a bubble in space protecting us from "killer electrons."
Co-author Phil Erickson of MIT's Haystack Observatory explains: "As Van Allen discovered in the 1950s and 1960s, there are two radiation belts surrounding Earth with a 'slot' between them. Our research is focused on the the outer radiation belt, which contains electrons with energies of a million or more electron-volts. These 'killer electrons' have the potential to damage spacecraft, even causing permanent failures."
During strong geomagnetic storms, the outer radiation belt expands, causing the killer electrons to approach Earth. But NASA's Van Allen Probes, a pair of spacecraft sent to explore the radiation belts, found that something was stopping the particles from getting too close.

"The penetration of the outer belt stopped right at the same place as the edge of VLF strong transmissions from humans on the ground," says Erickson. "These VLF transmissions penetrate seawater, so we use them to communicate with submarines. They also propagate upward along Earth's magnetic field lines, forming a 'bubble' of VLF waves that reaches out to about 2.8 Earth-radii--the same spot where the ultra-relativistic electrons seem to stop.
VLF radio waves clear the area of killer electrons "via a wave-particle gyro-resonance," says Erickson. Essentially, they are just the right frequency to scatter the particles away from our planet.

"Because powerful VLF transmitters have been operating since before the dawn of the Space Age, it is possible that we have never observed the radiation belts in their pristine, unperturbed state," notes John Foster, a colleague of Erickson at MIT and an early leader of this research.

Other anthropogenic effects on space weather include artificial radiation belts created by nuclear tests, high-frequency wave heating of the ionosphere, and cavities in Earth's magnetotail formed by chemical release experiments. Download the complete paper here.


Anthropogenic Space Weather
·                                 Authors
·                                 Authors and affiliations
·                                 T. I. GombosiEmail author
·                                 D. N. Baker
·                                 A. Balogh
·                                 P. J. Erickson
·                                 J. D. Huba
·                                 L. J. Lanzerotti
First Online: 
DOI: 10.1007/s11214-017-0357-5
Cite this article as:
Gombosi, T.I., Baker, D.N., Balogh, A. et al. Space Sci Rev (2017). doi:10.1007/s11214-017-0357-5
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·                                 84Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
1.                              The Scientific Foundation of Space Weather

Part of the following topical collections:
1.                              The Scientific Foundation of Space Weather
Anthropogenic effects on the space environment started in the late 19th century and reached their peak in the 1960s when high-altitude nuclear explosions were carried out by the USA and the Soviet Union. These explosions created artificial radiation belts near Earth that resulted in major damages to several satellites. Another, unexpected impact of the high-altitude nuclear tests was the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) that can have devastating effects over a large geographic area (as large as the continental United States). Other anthropogenic impacts on the space environment include chemical release experiments, high-frequency wave heating of the ionosphere and the interaction of VLF waves with the radiation belts. This paper reviews the fundamental physical process behind these phenomena and discusses the observations of their impacts.
High-altitude nuclear explosions Artificial radiation belts Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) Damage to satellites Space Debris Chemical releases HF heating VLF waves and radiation belts 
The Scientific Foundation of Space Weather
Edited by Rudolf von Steiger, Daniel Baker, André Balogh, Tamás Gombosi, Hannu Koskinen and Astrid Veronig
Part of the following topical collections:
1.                              The Scientific Foundation of Space Weather
Anthropogenic effects on the space environment started in the late 19th century and reached their peak in the 1960s when high-altitude nuclear explosions were carried out by the USA and the Soviet Union. These explosions created artificial radiation belts near Earth that resulted in major damages to several satellites. Another, unexpected impact of the high-altitude nuclear tests was the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) that can have devastating effects over a large geographic area (as large as the continental United States). Other anthropogenic impacts on the space environment include chemical release experiments, high-frequency wave heating of the ionosphere and the interaction of VLF waves with the radiation belts. This paper reviews the fundamental physical process behind these phenomena and discusses the observations of their impacts.
High-altitude nuclear explosions Artificial radiation belts Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) Damage to satellites Space Debris Chemical releases HF heating VLF waves and radiation belts 
The Scientific Foundation of Space Weather
Edited by Rudolf von Steiger, Daniel Baker, André Balogh, Tamás Gombosi, Hannu Koskinen and Astrid Veronig

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